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How Graphite molecular structure material is composed
Graphite is a crystalline mineral of carbonaceous element, and the crystalline lattice of Graphite molecular structure material is a hexagonal layered structure. The distance between each network layer is 3.40 Å, and the spacing of carbon atoms in the same network layer is 1.42 Å. It is a hexagonal crystal system with complete layered cleavage. The cleavage surface is dominated by molecular bonds, which is weak in attraction to molecules, so its natural buoyancy is very good.
Graphite and diamond, carbon 60, carbon nanotubes, etc. are all simple substances of carbon, and they are allotropes of each other.
The six carbon atoms of the Graphite molecular structure material form a regular six-connected ring on the same plane, extending into a lamellar structure. Here, the bond length of the C-C bond is 142pm, which just belongs to the bond length range of the atomic crystal, so for the same Layer-wise, it's an atomic crystal. Carbon atoms in the same plane each have one p orbital left, and they overlap each other. Electrons are relatively free, which is equivalent to free electrons in metals, so graphite can conduct heat and conduct electricity, which is the characteristic of metal crystals. Therefore, it is also classified as a metal crystal.
In the Graphite molecular structure material, the layers are separated by 340pm, and the distance is relatively large. They are combined by van der Waals force, that is, the layers belong to molecular crystals. However, due to the strong bonding between carbon atoms on the same plane layer, it is extremely difficult to destroy, so the melting point of graphite is also high, and the chemical properties are also stable.